Electrolysis of water
One important use of electrolysis of water is to produce hydrogen.
2 H2O(l) ? 2 H2(g) + O2(g); E0 = +1.229 V
Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for powering internal combustion engines by combustion or electric motors via hydrogen fuel cells (see Hydrogen vehicle). This has been suggested as one approach to shift economies of the world from the current state of almost complete dependence upon hydrocarbons for energy (See hydrogen economy.)
The energy efficiency of water electrolysis varies widely. The efficiency is a measure of what fraction of electrical energy used is actually contained within the hydrogen. Some of the electrical energy is converted to heat, a useless byproduct. Some reports quote efficiencies between 50% and 70%. This efficiency is based on the Lower Heating Value of Hydrogen. The Lower Heating Value of Hydrogen is total thermal energy released when hydrogen is combusted minus the latent heat of vaporization of the water. This does not represent the total amount of energy within the hydrogen, hence the efficiency is lower than a more strict definition. Other reports quote the theoretical maximum efficiency of electrolysis as being between 80% and 94%. The theoretical maximum considers the total amount of energy absorbed by both the hydrogen and oxygen. These values refer only to the efficiency of converting electrical energy into hydrogen's chemical energy. The energy lost in generating the electricity is not included. For instance, when considering a power plant that converts the heat of nuclear reactions into hydrogen via electrolysis, the total efficiency is more likely to be between 25% and 40%.
NREL found that a kilogram of hydrogen (roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline) could be produced by wind powered electrolysis for between $5.55 in the near term and $2.27 in the long term.
About four percent of hydrogen gas produced worldwide is created by electrolysis, and normally used on site. Hydrogen is used for the creation of ammonia for fertilizer via the Haber process, and converting heavy petroleum sources to lighter fractions via hydro cracking.
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A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on board fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.
Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. Integrated wind-to-hydrogen plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy sources.
Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile uses. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that, if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs, vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume, high tank age weights, the storage, transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles, the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles, and the inefficiency of production processes.
Awesome Results in European countries Using Our hho dry cell generators.
The hydrogen economy
The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen. The term hydrogen economy was coined by John Bockris during a talk he gave in 1970 at General Motors (GM) Technical Center. Hydrogen lobbyists promote hydrogen as potential fuel for motive power (including cars and boats), the energy needs of buildings and portable electronics.
Free hydrogen does not occur naturally, and thus it must be generated by electrolysis of water or another method. Hydrogen is therefore an energy carrier (like electricity), not a primary energy source (like coal). The utility of a hydrogen economy depends on issues of energy sourcing, including fossil fuel use, climate change, and sustainable energy generation.
How Our HHO Dry Cells And Hho Dry Cell Kits Work
Our hho generators are a circulating system design. The water travels from the reservoir through the cell and then back into the reservoir. No water pumps are needed.
The key to this circulating system is the way our hho dry cells are designed. You may come across other dry cell designs claiming to be successful with less holes and obscured ideas that our three hole design takes away from surface area. Common sense will tell you that if the water can't circulate properly the dry cell will over heat and draw too many amps.
Honest, accurate HHO Dry Cell Test Videos
Here are some Helpful pictures for installing your hho drycell as well as Videos on wiring your HHO generator, relays, pwms and other stuff included in your Hydrogen on Demand kits.
HHO Generator Help Videos